Monitoring Load Imbalance of Distribution Transformers Based on Internet of Things Technology

  • Osea Zebua Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Lampung
  • Endah Komalasari Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Lampung
  • Syaiful Alam Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Lampung
  • Aldiansyah Aldiansyah Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Lampung


Unbalanced load is one of the causes of unpredictable distribution transformer failure, so it is necessary to monitor the unbalanced load of the distribution transformer. Internet of things technology-based equipment supports remote monitoring needs. This paper presents the monitoring of unbalanced load in distribution transformer based on IoT technology. The voltage sensor and current sensor are used to measure the rms voltage and current in each phase, the Arduino microcontroller is used to process the measurement data and send it to the network server via an ethernet shield and a wifi router equipped with an internet modem. The results showed that the monitoring equipment based on IoT technology was able to work to monitor unbalanced load online so that it could be monitored remotely via equipment connected to the internet network.


Download data is not yet available.


Salustiano, R., Neto, E., and Martinez, M. (2013). The Unbalanced Load Cost on Transformer Losses at A Distribution System, 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, pp.1-3.

Theraja, B.L., and Theraja, A.K. (2005). A Textbook of Electrical Technology, Volume II: AC and DC Machines. S. Chand and Co.Ltd, New Delhi.

Zebua, O., Setiawan, A.H., Soedjarwanto, N., Anggara, J. dan Haris, A. (2016). Rancang Bangun Alat Monitoring Ketidakseimbangan Beban Pada Jaringan Tegangan Menengah. Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro, Vol.5, No.3, November 2016, halaman 405-413.

von Jouanne, A., and Banerjee, B.. (2001). Assessment of Voltage Unbalance. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, vol. 16, no.4, pp.782-790.

Pillay, P., and Manyage M. (2001). Defenition of Voltage Unbalance. IEEE Power Engineering Review, vol.21, no.5, pp.49-51.

Seiphetlho, T.E., and Rens, A.P.J. (2010). On the Assesment of Voltage Unbalance. Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Harmonic and Quality of Power (ICHQP), pp.1-6.

Rao, N.M., Narayanan, R., Vausdevamurthy, B.R., Das, S.K., (2013). Performance Requirements of Present-Day Distribution Transformer, IEEE ISGT Asia 2013, pp.1-6.

Wang, C., Daneshmand, M., Dohler, M., Mao, X., Hu, R.Q., and Wang, H. (2013). Guest Editorial – Special Issues on Internet of Things (IoT): Architecture, Protocols and Services. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol.13, no.10, pp.3505-3508.

Yaman, O., and Bicen, Y. (2019). An Internet of Things (IoT) Based Monitoring System for Oil-immersed Transformer. Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol.7, no.3, pp.226-234.

Pawar, R.R. and Deosarkar, S.B. (2017). Health Condition Monitoring System For Distribution Transformer Using Internet of Things. Proceedings of the IEEE 2017 International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, pp.117-122.

Vaz, F.A.J. (2018). IoT Based Distribution Transformer Care System. Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), pp.1-6.

Open Enery Monitor Software. (2013). [Online]. Available:

IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. (2009). IEEE Std. 1159TM-2009. IEEE Power Engineering and Society.

Yang, C., Cheng, X., Chen, F., and Qiao, L. (2018). Research on Influence of Three-phase Current Unbalance on Transformer Losses and the Top-Oil Temperature. Proceedings of IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC), pp.1145-1149.

How to Cite
O. Zebua, E. Komalasari, S. Alam, and A. Aldiansyah, “Monitoring Load Imbalance of Distribution Transformers Based on Internet of Things Technology”, JurnalEcotipe, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 70-77, Oct. 2020.
Abstract viewed = 31 times