• Karlina Triana
  • Sadhu Zukhruf Janottama


The distribution of sea level rise (SLR) rates is not uniform, shows regional characteristics and changes
over time. Most coastal areas in Southeast Asia countries have similar characteristics within the
geographical proximity with a low-lying topography, high population, and diversified economic
activities. However, the rates of SLR of these countries are varying, and at some places show a large
deviation from the global average. Using earth observation data, SLR can be analyzed in various places,
such as in coastal cities with a high population density and a high risk of flooding. This research was
aimed at updating and analyzing the current trends and rough future projections of SLR in Southeast Asia
coastal cities. The study was carried out using the SLR analysis between 1992–2020, resulting from
altimetry satellite data. SLR analysis was performed on 20 (twenty) coastal cities in the Southeast Asia
region. The study result identified the SLR rate varied between 1.12–7.37 mm/year, with the 8 (eight)
cities having a higher rate than the global SLR rate. The risk of SLR impact is greater in densely
populated and flood-prone cities such as Jakarta, Manila, Pattaya, Vung Tau, and Ho Chi Minh cities. The
satellite altimetry projection predicts that the SLR in Southeast Asia will range 0.05–0.33 m in 2050 and
0.11–0.70 m in 2100. With regards to these insights, decision-makers can establish better planning to face
the potential threats caused by SLR that can lead to actual disaster events such as floods.


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Author Biographies

Karlina Triana

Research Center for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Pasir Putih I, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 14430

Sadhu Zukhruf Janottama

The ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management
Jalan Raya Pramuka Kav. 38, Matraman, Jakarta 13120


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