In Silico Study of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols as Breast Anticancer

  • Khoirotul Ummah Departement of Science Education, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Wonocolo, Surabaya, 60237, Indonesia
  • Atiqoh Zummah Departemen of Biology, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Gununganyar, Surabaya, 60294, Indonesia

Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the causes of women’s death. Estrogen-α receptors are one of the targets for breast cancer treatment because it plays a role in cancer cell proliferation. Several studies have stated that Flavonoid compounds have high activity in inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells. This study aims to inhibit polyphenolic compounds in pomegranate peel (gallic acid, cafeic acid, ellagic acid, and chlorogenic acid) against estrogen receptors-α through molecular docking. The 3D structures of the polyphenolic compounds were obtained from the PubChem database and the estrogen-α receptors from the Protein Data Base. Molecular docking simulations were carried out using AutoDock Vina and supporting software such as Biovia Discovery Studio Client 4.1, AutoDockTools 1.5.6, PyMOL, and LigPlot. The results showed that the four polyphenolic compounds had a better potential to inhibit estrogen-α receptors than tamoxifen. The inhibitory potential is evidenced by the low affinity of ligand-protein binding energy (approximately -5.4 to -9.0 kcal/mol). The phenol group of polyphenolic compounds can strengthen the ligand-protein interactions through hydrogen bonds with the active site of ER-ꭤ proteins. Hydrophobic and π-π stacking interactions between polyphenolic and the active site of proteins also support the inhibition potential of polyphenolic compounds. The conclusion is that the polyphenolic compounds in pomegranate peel have the potential as breast anticancers.

Keywords: polyphenol, pomegranate peel, breast cancer, estrogen-α receptor, molecular docking

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alwahibi, M.S. 2020. A Review on Anti-cancer and Antioxidant Potentials of Plants with Mode of Action. Pak. J. Med. Health Sci. 14, 905–910.
Darwati, et al. 2021. Effectiveness and Anticancer Activity of a Novel Phenolic Compound from Garcinia porrecta Against the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line in vitro and in silico. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 3523-3533, DOI: 10.2147/ DDDT.S321824
Ezzati, M., Youse, B., Velaei, K., & Safa, A. 2020. A review on anti-cancer properties of Quercetin in breast cancer. 248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117463
Fanning, S.W., Speltz, T.E., Mayne, C.G., Siddiqui, Z., Greene, G.L., Tajkhorshid, E., Moore, T.W. 2018. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Ligand Binding Domain in Complex with Estradiol and SRC2-BCP1. ID 5WGQ. Retrieved September 17, 2023 from https://www.rcsb.org/structure/5WGQ
Gautama, W. 2022. Breast Cancer in Indonesia in 2022 : 30 Years of Marching in Place. 1–2.
Habchi, C., Badran, A., Srour, M., Daou, A., Baydoun, E., Hamade, K., & Hijazi, A. (2023). Determination of the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Pomegranate Peel Extract Obtained by Ultrasound on HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line. Processes, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041111
Imran, M., Rauf, A., Abu-izneid, T., Nadeem, M., Ali, M., Ali, I., Imran, A., Erdogan, I., Rizwan, M., Atif, M., Gondal, T. A., & Mubarak, M. S. 2019. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Luteolin, a flavonoid, as an anticancer agent : A review. 112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108612
Ko, E.-Y., & Moon, A. 2015. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer. Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20(4), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.15430/jcp.2015.20.4.223
Li, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, T., & Li, P. 2022. Role of Estrogen Receptor-Positive / Negative Ratios in Regulating Breast Cancer. 2022.
Morris, G. M., Huey, R., & Olson, A. J. 2008. UNIT using AutoDock for ligand-receptor docking. In Current Protocols in Bioinformatics (Issue SUPPL. 24). https://doi.org/10.1002/0471250953.bi0814s24
Muttaqin, F. Z., Kharisma, D., & Asnawi, A. 2020. Pharmacophore and Molecular Docking-Based Virtual Screening of B-Cell. 10(2), 143–147.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2023. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 370, Gallic Acid. Retrieved September 17, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Gallic-Acid.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2023. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 689043, Caffeic Acid. Retrieved September 17, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Caffeic-Acid.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2023. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 5281855, Ellagic Acid. Retrieved September 17, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ellagic-Acid.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2023. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 1794427, Chlorogenic Acid. Retrieved September 17, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Chlorogenic-Acid.
Nge, S.T., dkk. 2019. Analisis Senyawa Polifenol Ekstrak Kulit Buah dan Biji Delima (Punica granatum L). Jurnal Biotropikal Sains. 16(1):14 – 19.
Oršoli´c, N.; Jazvinš´cak Jembrek, M. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Propolis and Its Polyphenolic Compounds against Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 10479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms231810479
Oyenihi, A.B.; Smith, C. 2019. Are polyphenol antioxidants at the root of medicinal plant anti-cancer success? J. Ethnopharmacol. 229, 54–72.
Roy, S. S., & Vadlamudi, R. K. 2012. Role of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Metastasis. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/654698
Selvakumar, P., Badgeley, A., Murphy, P., Anwar, H., Sharma, U., Lawrence, K., & Lakshmikuttyamma, A. 2020. Flavonoids and Other Polyphenols Act as Epigenetic. 1–18.
Sharma, D., Kumar, S., & Narasimhan, B. 2018. Estrogen alpha receptor antagonists for the treatment of breast cancer : a review. Chemistry Central Journal, 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0472-8
Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., Fuchs, H. E., & Jemal, A. 2022. Cancer statistics, 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 72(1), 7–33. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21708
Singh, B., Singh, J. P., Kaur, A., & Singh, N. 2018. Phenolic compounds as beneficial phytochemicals in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel: A review. Food Chemistry, 261(April), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.039
Stanzione, F., Giangreco, I., & Cole, J. C. (2021). Use of molecular docking computational tools in drug discovery. In Progress in Medicinal Chemistry (1st ed., Vol. 60). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pmch.2021.01.004
Teniente, S. L., Flores-Gallegos, A. C., Esparza-González, S. C., Campos-Múzquiz, L. G., Nery-Flores, S. D., & Rodríguez-Herrera, R. (2023). Anticancer Effect of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols against Cervical Cancer. Antioxidants, 12(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010127
Vladu, A.F.; Ficai, D.; Ene, A.G.; Ficai, A. Combination Therapy Using Polyphenols: An Efficient Way to Improve Antitumoral Activity and Reduce Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 10244. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ijms231810244
Waks, A. G., & Winer, E. P. 2019. Breast Cancer Treatment: A Review. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 321(3), 288–300. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19323kan software AutoDockTools 1.5.6.
Published
2024-05-01
How to Cite
Ummah, K., & Zummah, A. (2024). In Silico Study of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols as Breast Anticancer. Stannum : Jurnal Sains Dan Terapan Kimia, 6(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.33019/jstk.v6i1.4817
Section
Articles
Abstract viewed = 127 times
PDF English downloaded = 74 times